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NAVAL MUSEUMS AND MILITARY-HISTORICAL MUSEUMS IN SAINT PETERSBURG

The original Admiralty was one of the first structures to be built in St Petersburg. It was designed to be a dockyard, where some of the first ships of Russia's Baltic fleet were built (some with the participation of Tsar Peter himself who, was an expert in shipbuilding). The Admiralty was also fortified to be an extra defense for the newly acquired territory of the Neva delta.

 

The Admiralty building we see today was built between 1806 and 1823 by the architect Adrian Zakharov. He maintained the original plan of the building, but turned it into a marvelous example of the Russian Empire style, with rows of white columns, wonderful relief detail and numerous statues. The gilded spire of the Admiralty (and particularly its weather-vane korablik - "the little ship") is another of St. Petersburg's famous landmarks. The Admiralty tower, topped with its golden spire, is the focal point of three of the city's main streets; Nevsky Propect, Gorokhovaia Street and Voznesensky Prospekt, and can be seen along the entire length of each one.

 

The Admiralty was Russia's Naval Headquarters until 1917, and now serves as a naval college. The gardens in front of the Admiralty are particularly beautiful in summer, and you might choose to walk through them on your way from the Hermitage to the "Bronze Horseman" and St Isaac's.

The State Memorial Suvorov Museum is dedicated to the memory of the famous Russian commander, Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov. The museum was founded in 1900, the centennial anniversary of the Suvorov death. The museum was opened in 1904. Suvorov became the first man in Russia, in whose honor was specially built museum.

 

The museum was built with the money donated army commanders and civilians. Emperor Nicholas II became the main sponsor and patron of the museum construction. The museum building was built specially for the museum by project architeht AI von Gauguin.

 
The museum displays military awards and personal commander weapons, captured in battle weapons and banners. Museum expositions make imagin of the life and military service Suvorov. In the museum can be seen weapons, uniforms, equipment Russian army.

 

Suvorov is one of the top Russian military commanders. This is the first man in Russia, in whose honor was erected personal museum. As stated, Suvorov never lost a battle, all of which were won by the enemy numerical superiority. Suvorov was awarded by both Russian and foreign awards.

The Central Naval Museum is one of the oldest museums in Russia and one of the largest of its kind in the world. It originates from the Model Chamber, founded by Peter the Great in 1709. Initially it was a drawing workshop where all the ship models and drawings were kept. In 1805 Alexander I signed the order concerning foundation of the Sea Museum based on the Model Chamber collections. In the new museum not only collections of ship machines, books and rarities were stored, but also the most modern navigation tools for Russian sailors were collected. When the Admiralty library was included in the collection of the Sea Museum, it became the largest cultural fleet center in Russia. Such outstanding seafarers as I. Kruzenshtern, Y. Lisyanskiy, F. Bellinsgauzen, F. Vrangel and others participated in the museum collections' formation. Among the objects they brought from their sailings were weapons, boats, minerals, stuffed animals and birds, and so forth.

 

In 1908, when the birthday of the museum was solemnly celebrated, it was given the name of its' founder, Peter the Great. After the Revolution of 1917 the collection of the museum was enlarged considerably due to the expropriated collections. A lot of exhibits connected with the royal family and famous aristocratic families were destroyed as not corresponding with the new ideology. In 1924 the museum got its modern name - the Central Naval Museum.

 

In 1939 the Central Naval Museum was given one of the most beautiful buildings in the city - the Stock Exchange House. The Stock Exchange, the focal point of wonderful architectural ensembles of the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island, was constructed in 1805-1810 by celebrated architect Thomas de Thomon. The building is decorated with allegorical sculptural compositions: Neptune with Two Rivers and Navigation with Mercury and Two Rivers. They underline the connection between the Stock Exchange House and sea trade. The main exposition of the museum enlightens the history of the Russian navigation and Russian Fleet from the ancient time till nowadays.

 

Today the museum boasts over 800,000 exhibits telling the story of the Russian Navy from ancient times to the present day. These include about 2,000 models of old and modern ships, 5,000 paintings from such famous maritime artists as I. Aivazovsky, A. Bogolubov, L. Caravaque, W. Huckert and others, about 7,000 examples of weaponry and combat equipment, and a collection of medals, coins, navigational devices, maps and photo-material. It also houses over 3,000 flags and banners, numerous war trophies and the personal effects of famous Russian seafarers and naval commanders

 

The museum uses vivid models and displays to narrate the history of the Russian Navy: its victories at Gangut (Hango), Chesme, Corfu and Sinope, amongst others; its contribution to round-the-world voyages of discovery; and its legendary cruiser Variag and other heroic ships. A number of documents attest to the participation of sailors in the three Russian revolutions and the Civil War. The exhibition ends with an overview of naval activities in the USSR, from the operations of the Soviet Navy during the Second World War to its development in the post-war period. Among the most remarkable exhibits are Peter I's small boat known as the "Grandfather of the Russian Navy", the first Naval Regulations printed in 1720, and models of Russian ships (the Aurora, Azov, Variag, Vladimir, and Kirov) and submarines.

 

Besides, the museum has four further branches: the Cruiser Aurora, the Narodovolets D-2 Submarine, the Kronstadt Fortress and the Road of Life Museum.

The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St. Petersburg is the largest Military Museum in the world. It is also known as the Museum of Artillery, at the same time it is one of the oldest museums of the city. The creation of the museum started at the same time as the building of St. Petersburg.

 

The Museum was build by the order of Peter 1, as a place where should be saved unique historical examples of weapon and they should be situated in .In the middle of 19th century the military collection moved in the Peter and Paul Fortress (Petropavlovskaya Krepost). Later it became a museum.

 

Today in the collection of the Museum are situated for more than 500.000 exhibits, among them are: different artillery technics, military form of different ages, military emblems and flags, medals, work of military art, weapon trophies of Russian army,the largest collection of different small-weapon and cold weapon from iron arquebus and ancient Slavonic swords to the Kalashnikov gun.

 

In the museum you can also see the main guns of Peter the Great, a front car that moved artillery flags, military awards of Russian Emperors, private gun of Alexander 1 and Nikolay 2, Napoleon Bonapart,marshal Murrey and many other russian and soviet military captains and commanders. In the museum there is a hall of russian rocket technics starting with technics of 18th century and till the first nuclear rockets.This exhibition is devoted to Kutuzov, consisted of his things that are situated in a rebuilt room, where he spend his last days of life.

 

In the Museum are gathered the best collections from Russia and 54 countries of the world, you will be definitely impressed by such a variety. The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St.Petersburgh is a precious place to visit, it will be interesting for people from all over the world. Here you can learn about the historical and cultural life of Russia, France, Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden and many other outstanding countries.

The museum of Political History charts the main events in politics from the downfall of the Romanov dynasty, through the revolution, the repressive days of Stalin, up to Gorbachev and glasnost, and all the way through to Boris Yeltsin and the current regime of Putin.

 

A political history museum has existed in St. Petersburg since 1919. It was first housed in the Winter Palace and known as the Revolution Museum. In 1957 it moved to its current premises, where, until 1991, it was called the Museum of the Great October Socialist Revolution. It is now known as the Museum of Russian Political History, a title that reflects the recent changes that have been made to its profile.

 

The building itself is political history as for a period it served as the Bolshevik headquarters. The Military Wing of the Central Committee, the editorial offices of Soldatskaya Pravda and other revolutionary organizations were located there. The mansion became the nerve-centre of their propaganda work. Lenin once addressed a crowd of workers and soldiers from the balcony that the museum is now located in.

 

Before the reorganization of the museum in the early 1990s, more than 1,600 exhibits were kept in its 12 halls. These included documents, leaflets, photographs, revolutionary banners from 1917, and various personal belongings of eminent figures of the Communist Party and members of the revolutionary movement.

 

The recently created permanent exhibitions arouse great interest among visitors. They include: Soviet Period: Between Utopia and Reality, Man and Power in Russia in the XIX-XXI Centuries, The State Duma, Historical Parallels, Collapse of the USSR, February of 1917. Breakdown of Monarchy.

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