The Kola Peninsula is the northernmost territory of European Russia, situated north of the 66th Parallel. The territory extends 550 kilometres from west to east, and 400 kilometres from north to south. The Peninsula is bordered by the White Sea in the southeast and by the Barents Sea in the north and northeast. Karelia lies to the south, Finland to the west, and Norway to the northwest.
The bulk of the Kola Peninsula lies north of the Arctic Circle. Winters are cold but not frigid; summers are warm but not hot. January temperatures range between -8 and –13oC; July temperatures range between +12 and +20oC. The legendary Polar Night blankets the Peninsula during December and January, when the sun hides below the horizon day and night. In the city electric bulbs might light the way, but in the wilderness darkness prevails. However, comes summer, the Kola Peninsula is transformed into a land of midnight sun. Throughout June and July bright sunshine illuminates the land around the clock.
The region is covered with tundra, forest-tundra and taiga (dense forest) and is home to a wide variety of flora: The Kola Peninsula is also rich in fauna. Wildlife includes reindeer and elk, brown bear, wolf, fox, arctic fox, ermine, and wolverine; birds include wild geese, duck, ptarmigan, hazel-hen, grouse, eider and peregrine falcon. Various representatives of the salmon family can be found in plenty in the lakes and rivers.